In a review of 748 research studies conducted in agricultural and Extension education, Radhakrishna, Leite, and Baggett (2003) found that 64% used questionnaires.
The totality of the content of existing PRO instruments for a specific condition provides a valuable resource (pool of items) that can be utilised to develop new instruments.
Such 'top down' approaches are common, but the explicit pre-validation methods are often poorly reported.
Although the use of OER is growing in the Global South, it is not used as frequently or as broadly as it is in the Global North, perhaps due to a combination of cultural, demographic, socioeconomic and political factors.
However, the potential benefits of OER – especially the improvement of everyday life for those on the margins of society – should be understood by scholars, policy makers, and the public so that they can help promote greater social equity and empowerment.
The focus is on cross-cultural and conceptual, rather than on linguistic/literal equivalence.